researcher also aims to study Becket’s chained characters who try to be other than humanity. The features of such characters are to be scrutinized in Krapp’s Last Tape, wherein Krapp’s disability to speak and back to his love against the constant repeated years and representing of tapes reaffirms what Deleuze mentions as becoming other than humanity. The same process is to be followed by the researcher in two other plays Not I and Endgame in which characters such as woman’s mouth indicated in her confessions how she fails in liberating herself from the dark shadows of this world and in giving voice to her words when she says: “I’m lonely…. I wish I had music, but all I have is words” (29), “… my hollow heart” is “full of darkness” (27) as “death is my lover” (35). As the researcher points out, such Deleuzean projects are shared by Hamm and Clov in Endgame as well, in their long conversation at the beginning of the play they confess that they are “sad”, “bored and dissatisfied”, “a complete failure”, “guilty and punished” who “cannot overcome loneliness”, and “cannot write” (5); however, this reading wishes to indicate the way those characters are more successful in their movement into the light of liberation away from centered system to become other rather than self.
The next Deleuzean notion applied in Becket’s works is urgent need to journey from humanity to anti-humanity. To do this, the researcher desires to follow Deleuzean maxims are followed to deconstruct. In this process, this research intends to focus on those parts of the plays in which the characters Krapp, Hamm, Clov, and the woman’s mouth finally find a way to liberate themselves from all systems that suffocate their voices, so as to that prevent them from glorifying their thoughts. This is to be focused in Krapp’s Last Tape when Krapp finds out how to glorify his functions by saying goodbye to humanity for becoming tapes; and in Hamm as Clov’s desire to be silent. The same notion is repeated in Not I, as the woman’s mouth asserts in her speech that she has “gnawed her tongue with which to her she can never speak” (23) but later she tears her memory apart to reach that beautiful pain of existence as if she wishes to build a totally new source of unconscious for herself.
The last significant dictum deployed to finalize the study of Becket’s plays, is Deleuzean becoming, “a revolutionary subversive writing that breaks all classes, regulations, rhetorics, and codes sweeping away the syntax and laws of language; a writing in constant search for love of the other in which not only the differences are not to be denied, but also the other is given a voice in contrast with traditional writing” (DeleuzeI 443-74). According to Deleuze, nothing has ground or home anymore, everything is a constant process of deterriorialisation or becoming other than itself. Thus, this study serves to analyze Becket’s revolutionary style in line with what Deleuze calls becoming. Some of the aspects of his unique style of writing the researcher aims to foreground are hidden under his artistic use of fragmentary, broken language deployed in Not I where anonymous characters bombard the reader’s mind with fragmentary statements coming one after another without even logical sequence.
Although Not I seems to be his most traditionally well-structured play, it makes extensive use of some innovative qualities such as repetitive one-word sentences which are to be highlighted. Accordingly, Becket’s unique representation of short, fragmentary, one-word sentences, numbers, dashes, spaces, and intense use of repetitive words are other programs to be studied in Endgame by means of Deleuzean deconstructive methods concerning unique writing from which other is not excluded. In the end, the researcher plans to finalize the analysis by emphasizing a kind of inhumanity which is a pure search for other indicated in the fusion of gender in these plays, demonstrated in characters Hamm, Clov, woman’s mouth, and Krapp.
1.5 Literature Review
As previous chapters have revealed, this research concerns a Deleuzean study of Samuel Becket’s three plays, Not I, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Endgame in which the researcher aims to enhance the readers’ horizons of understanding on different aspects of such controversial plays under the light of Deleuze’s post-structural, post-Freudian tenets. Therefore, to analyze Becket’s innovative representation of human mind and body in his unique, poignant style of writing, first Deleuze’s main manifesto about becoming in his book Capitalism and Schizophrenia. In this book, Deleuze declares his revolutionary statements concerning the urgent necessity of bringing human into text by writing about other things as sources of producing aesthetics form which they have been driven away for ages. Moreover, he urges human being kept in the margins of capitalist society to return from beyond to their selves, to invent a unique type of writing to liberate themselves and to write about other things as the signifier of their unconscious. Moreover, he asserts that becoming has the face of Krapp who needs such a subversive language that breaks all norms, code, classes, and regulations sweeping away syntax and laws o language to express his loneliness, his emptiness, and his interest for other (496-741). The researcher studies these notions to see the grandeur of their practicality in Becket’s three chosen plays. As mentioned, Becket’s sharp, short and fragmentary style of writing in all his three works shares different aspects of Deleuze’s manifestations of becoming. Besides, the unique exotic characterization of his characters shares the same celebration of becoming functions with that of Deleuze when Hamm and Clov, or Krapp and woman’s mouth unusually fuse into one another to represent other things rather than humanity.
Another notion to be focused in this study, is the matter of different affects asserted in Deleuze’s article “The Future of Affects Studies”. Thus, the researcher studies this article in addition to the previous one to get deeper to the core of Deleuze’s deconstructive ideas about becoming and affect that challenge Western, capitalist’s views on human being associated with passivity, death (454-61). Influenced by Derrida, he also opposes those privileged hierarchies that simply solve the question of differences in which the human’s place is always at the above (457). The researcher needs to concentrate on this article, to observe Deleuze’s depiction of humans in their deconstructive act of threatening the stability of such a dominated structure creating such a revolutionary language that not only does not deny the differences but also celebrates the notion of them rather than I by loving the other in him self. In this respect, the researcher again goes back to Deleuze’s book where he warns these humans who follow them to bring them unfixed place on the capitalist systems (Deleuze I 473). By scrutinizing such notions in these two articles and book, now the researcher can magnify the horizons of meaning in Becket’s three mentioned plays as he has depicted characters and situations in parallel accordance with what Gilles Deleuze manifests; characters such as Krapp, Hamm, Clov and the woman’s mouth can be representatives of Becket’s version of Deleuze’s anti-human issue in their constant struggle in their process of becoming to express their bodies, to speak, to write and to get rid of torture and human world.
Another perfect source that can be mentioned here is Essays Critical and Clinical. Essays Critical and Clinical comprises eight newly revised articles that were originally published by Deleuze between 1970 and 1993 along with ten essays. The researcher mainly concentrates on three essays in this book that can lead her to know what language means by Deleuze.
Furthermore, the researcher may not directly refer to such studies in her analysis of Beckett’s three plays; however, she should have a whole dominance over the analytical area she wishes to apply Deleuze’s criticism to Samuel Beckett’s Endgame, Krapp’s Last tape, and Not I. Therefore, the researcher mainly concentrates on Habib’s A History of Literary Criticism as well as Bressler’s Literary Criticism position in the historical development of humanity to the present day, and his influences and common features shared with others critics of different fields of criticism.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
Affect: Affect is the change, or variation, that occurs when bodies collide, or come into contact. As a body, affect is the transitional product of an encounter, specific in its ethical and lived dimensions and yet it is also as indefinite as the experience of a sunset, transformation, or ghost. In its largest sense, affect is part of the Deleuzean project of trying- to understand, and comprehend, and express all of the incredible, wondrous, tragic, painful, and destructive configurations of things and bodies as temporally mediated, continuous events. Deleuze uses the term ‘affection’ to refer to the additive processes, forces, powers, and expressions of change the mix of affects that produce a modification or transformation in the affected body (Deleuze 11).
Becoming: Becoming is most often conceived by deducing the differences between a start- point and end- point. On Deleuze’s account, this approach means fi rst subtracting movement from the field of action or thinking in which the states are conceived, and then somehow reintroducing it as the means by which another static state has ‘become’. For Deleuze, this approach is an abstract exercise
معتقد بود همچون هراکليتوس که جهان در سيلان است. منتهي اين سيلان به معناي انحطاط نبود بلکه در معناي بالندگي و تکامل به کار گرفته ميشد. و هگل تاريخ آلمان را عاليترين سهم در تکامل Read more…