capitalist society believes. Thus, “writing is a pure search for freedom that is not destructive without attributing any labels or classifications to anyone” (Deleuze I 443). The researcher claims that this kind of freedom is one of the main concerns of Becket reflected in his mentioned plays. In fact his works are involved in a freedom through which his characters are shaped and evolutionalized. They all crave for freedom in totality, a freedom that does not exclude the other, or nor aims at any dominance over it, but wants it to be completed. As it is manifested in Krapp Last Tape, Krapp seeks freedom from this dark world through becoming tape and silence. He attempts to be everything other than himself. Affect of fear and loneliness in Endgame is shown through Hamm who craves for disappearing from this gloomy atmosphere despite the fact that Clov humiliates him each time he declares his will and threatens him by leaving. Also, the woman’s mouth in Not I gives voice to her disappointing love which makes her sing now after ages of silence, and thereby sees herself alone and useless. In fact she desires for the other to uplift her soul, that is why she lets her voice be heard through her mouth. Although the fusion of characters and events is one of Becket’s artistically used techniques, it may seem confusing to the readers. However, the researcher insists that if his plays are studied in line with what Deleuze manifests as becoming other things of another kind attributed to anti-humanity and the quality of giving, the readers’ understanding would go beyond the simple interpretations of loneliness exacted in the cliché theories of lack and desire.
In fact, in this study, the researcher aims to have a thorough analysis of Becket’s three plays, Krapp’s Last Tape, Endgame and Not I by means of Deleuze’s becoming, affect and nomadic theories on writing, human, and real world. To do this, the researcher attempts to analyze Becket’s plays through Deleuzean outlook to render unique, distinguished interpretation of Becket’s works far from those often one-dimensional, prejudiced views due to the attribution of intense naturalistic violence, sexuality, vulgarity, and psychological distress to the characters. Besides, the researcher’s purpose is to enhance readers’ understanding of these plays by going beyond over-simplified interpretations that normally judge a book by its cover finally leading to the same fierce controversies around Becket’s plays. In this way, the researcher serves to study the plays based on Deleuze’s revolutionary projects towards becoming as the source of human consciousness projected in his speaking as well as his writing. Accordingly, one would be able to bring Becket’s depiction of characters in their constant struggle for communication into further levels of meaning and to analyze these “becoming” in process of rebirth out of the traditional chained and brainwashed beings without labeling them as fixed, traditional creatures as readers would traditionally do.
Moreover, this study would emphatically assert that Becket’s representations of poignant loneliness, fear, and alienation of his characters depicted through a naturalistic, fragmented, confusing, and sometimes non-verbal language can be construed in revolutionary aspects of the writer’s unwitting becoming. Thus, the unknowing text desires to break all codes, regulations, and syntax of language to communicate in a unique language of its own. Accordingly, this rereading of Beckett wishes to affirm that all those controversial harsh images of loneliness, fear, fusion of sexes that may confuse many readers at their first attempts in reading his plays can now be understood as practical representations of Deleuzean dictum of becoming other things rather than humanity, interestingly this non-human creation celebrates rebirth out of decentered capitalist systems. Furthermore, in the process of improving the readers’ understanding Beckett’s plays are expounded as distinguished multilayered works worth reading for Iranian readers as neither the writer nor his works are widely known in the researcher’s homeland, Iran. Therefore, this study serves to study Samuel Becket’s Endgame. Not I and Krapp’s Last Tape through Deleuze’s outstanding views of inhumanity and writing in a novel fashion not only to broaden the horizons of understanding radically all around the world but also to introduce to the Iranian readers Becket’s unique practice of becoming in his distinguished works. In this manner, it would pave the way for further studies of these works or even other plays of Samuel Becket in Iran.
The first motivation of history is to concentrate on Samuel Becket three plays in the vein of Gilles Deleuze projects is Becket himself as a distinguished modern playwright because of his controversial, artistically structured artworks. Therefore, the first shocking impression after the first reading of Becket’s unique plays was strong enough to motivate the researcher to introduce such a playwright to Iranian readers by analyzing them through a revolutionary outlook exacted in Deleuze’s thinking. The researcher’s second motivation in to apply such an outlook goes back to the multidimensional nature of “Deleuze’s standing” as a thinker. A thinker influenced by Derrida’s outlooks on psychology and language he is distinguished from all other writers. Thus, to accomplish this, the researcher focuses on Samuel Becket’s three plays, Not I, Endgame, and Krapp’s Last Tape.
This reading also aims to focus on those aspects of Deleuze’s project of becoming mostly discussed in his main book Capitalism and Schizophrenia. According to this book, the programs applied in this research are mainly deduced from Deleuze’s opposition to Western culture in which human beings are always associated with superiority. In other words, he asserts that from philosophy to literature there have been often questions of humanity. “What Deleuze has emphasized here are his unsetting ideas on threatening the stability of humanity suggesting “the other” in which the other is not only accepted but also given a voice to speak independently; he is not going to be reduced to a single idol anymore, nor is he dominated by the other things” (457-64). “This quality attributed to be born again urges human to be other than humanity. By the other, Deleuze means anything but human since he does not differentiate between human and things; it is a cosmic unconsciousness that enables everyone to think endlessly not to build a hierarchy of society” (464).
Another theory discussed in Capitalism and Schizophrenia that is to be focused on in this research is ‘becoming’ in which he continues clarifying the issues mainly discussed in the previous one beside adding some new revolutionary theories. A project like becoming plays a vital role in analyzing Becket’s plays. As it renders, an innovative and subversive writing that breaks the boundaries, classes, regulations, and codes, sweeping away the syntax and Laws of language that does not give way to any classifications. Again, by means of ‘becoming’ he urges human to speak out, to step out of their thoughts. Another issue being discussed in this research is what Deleuze takes as human’s quality of making affect in being the other without any expectations of mentioning the affect’s word. He associates becoming with the image of Krapp asserting that he is no longer human, or passive as Western culture has labeled him for centuries; he craves for other rather than I, and that is why the fusion of things in such writing is regarded as a usual characteristic.
At the end, it should be reemphasized that in analyzing Becket’s three plays- Krapp’s Last Tape, Endgame, and Not I, the researcher will not go any further from the notions mentioned in this chapter. This research does not intend to focus on notions such as the universal and personal one, or the gesture and aim of one. Moreover, the researcher will not go through any specific review of history of cinema since the research is not going to be a historical or philosophical study of writing in Western Culture, nor is it the analysis of its general stylistic and rhetorical principles.
1.5Approach and Methodology
This research is not a mere anti-humanist analysis of Samuel Becket’s three plays, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape and Not I, since it serves to examine these works via Gilles Deleuze’s tenets that are influenced by Derridean deconstructive methods and Freudean Psychoanalytic theories. Therefore, this research mainly centers on Deleuze’s poststructuralist theories in foregrounding creative literature writing along with some aspects of his deconstructive and psychoanalytic studies applicable to Becket’s three chosen plays.
In this respect, the first objective the researcher pursues is to focus on is the application of Deleuze’s notion of process of a becoming reborn from the traditional system in Samuel Becket’s four characters Krapp, Clov , Hamm, and the woman’s mouth. As asserted in his book Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Deleuze insists that after ages of internalizing the fact of being kept in the dark world, in the margin of humanity systems, these silent humans are given chances to come out of their dark zone and speak proudly about their repressed drives so as to celebrate their newborn life (497-97). Hence, the present study aims to observe to what extend Becket’s characters are practitioners of Deleuze’s becoming, Krapp, in the process of becoming and in the movement from humanity to things.
In this observation then, the
معتقد بود همچون هراکليتوس که جهان در سيلان است. منتهي اين سيلان به معناي انحطاط نبود بلکه در معناي بالندگي و تکامل به کار گرفته ميشد. و هگل تاريخ آلمان را عاليترين سهم در تکامل Read more…